1823 Anderson (British Government Officer) visited Medan. Population = 200.
1861 Fujianese began to settle in Labuhan Deli
1865 Nienhuys (Dutch) opened Dutch plantation center to grow tobacco.
1869 The opening of Suez Canal
1870 Chinese coolie began to be shipped to Sumatra.
1873-1924 The rule of Sultan Ma'mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, "the Builder".
1878 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Tanjung Mulia (between Titipapan & Labuhan)
1880s Guandi-miao (Guandi, Caishen, Dabogong) was erected by Guangdong people in Medan (Jl. Irian Barat 2).
1880s Guanyin-gong (Shakyamuni, Guanyin, Dizang-wang) was erected by Xinghua people in Medan (Jl. Yos Sudarso 46).
1885 The first newspaper "Deli Courant" was published.
1886 Medan became the capital of northern Sumatra.
1886 "Witte Societeit" ("a rather grand club") was erected next to the post office.
1888 Sultan of Deli (Sultan Ma'mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah) moved from Labuhan Deli to Maimoon Palace in Medan.
1890 Guandi-gong (Guandi) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pertemburan 81 - near Pulo Brayan)
1891 Shoushan-gong (Guanyin) was erected by Fujianese in Labuhan Deli
1895 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Titipapan.
1898 Hotel De Boer was constructed.
1898-1939 Publication of "De Sumatra Post" by Joseph Hallermann, a German.
1900 Tjong A Fie mansion was built.
1906 Tianhou-gong (Mazu temple) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pandu Baru 2)
1907 Sultan Mosque was built.
1908 City Hall (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1909-1911 Construction of post office (Snuyf, architect - head of Ned.Ind.PWD)
1910 Medan was a small city. Population = 17,500.
1910 Javasche Bank (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1913 Tjong A Fie donated the city hall's clock tower.
1917 Horse drawn carts with brooms were used for town cleaning.
1923 Renovation of City Hall.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yuhuang-dadi) was erected by Chaozhou people in Kedai Durian.
1924-1945 The rule of Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Motorized vehicles were used to replace the horse drawn cars for town cleaning.
1929 Office of Netherlands Trading Company (now Bank Exim) was completed (used by Gunseikanbu during the Japanese occupation).
1936 Guanyin-ting (Guanyin) was erected by Hakka women in Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) was erected by Chaozhou women in Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
1942 End of Dutch rule. Population = 80,000.
2000 Medan's population = 1,898,013
1. Akihary, Huib, "Architectuur & Stedebouw in Indonesie 1870/1979", De Walburg Pers, Zutphen, 1988
2. Buiskool, Dirk A., and Koudenburg, Tjeerd, "Tours Through Historical Medan and Its Surroundings", Medan, 1995
3. Reid, Anthony (comp.), "Witnesses to Sumatra - A Travellers' Anthology", Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1995
4. "Classical Photographs of Medan in the Old Days", Sumatra Heritage Trust, Medan, 2000
5. Sinar, Tengku Lukman, "The History of Medan in the Olden Times", 6th edition, Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengembangan Seni Budaya Melayu, Medan, 1996
6. Loderichs, M.A., "Medan - Beeld van een stad", Asia Maior, Purmerend, 1997
7. Van Diessen, J.R. and Voskuil, R.P.G.A., "Stedenatlas Nederlands-Indie", Asia Maior, Purmerend, 1998, pp. 30-36.